Accessibility in user experience design is vast, but it generally means making your product accessible to any and all of your users. There are a few guidelines that help UX designers meet the WCAG 2.0 (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines).
1. Add Enough Color Contrast
Some people have low vision, and those people could have trouble reading text if the background is has too low of color contrast. According to the guidelines, the contrast ratio between the background and the text should be 4.5 to 1.
2. Don’t Just Use Color to Make Vital Information Understandable
Like before, some people might be colorblind and have trouble seeing the content. Using patterns, labels, icons, or a change in the font combat this problem, and gives your users an easier way of identifying crucial information. This is especially apparent in graphs/charts. One way to help in the design of those graphs is to print them in black and white and see if you can still understand the information being presented.
3. Usable Focus States
Things that users are supposed to interact with like links, menu buttons, widgets, etc. should all have clear indicators that they are different. That’s why links have that blue outline and menu navigation buttons are generally a different color and font than the rest of the page/text. They should stand out and be easy to see, as well as be well contrasted to the other parts of the page.
4. Use Labels/Instructions with Form Fields and Inputs
You shouldn’t use placeholder text in text boxes, it is often hard to read and easy to forget what the text box is even for. You should make it so the labels/etc. are above text boxes and are in bold so people can easily read and follow the instructions.
5. Write Useful Alternative Text for Your Images/etc.
People with low visibility may not be able to clearly see images, charts, etc. So having texts that describe or explain them is a good way to convey the idea of them to those people. You’ll want to give these texts real and concise context so people actually know what your images are, instead of reading “picture” or “Exhibit A”.
6. Use Correct Markup on Your Content
Formatting your content is key. You should correctly use titles and headings to better convey the text within them. They should be large and readable so that people can navigate to where they want to start reading, as well as giving readers an overview of what the text underneath the headings are about. HTML tags also help people navigate the pages in a structured manor ,so be sure and use them properly.
7. Be Sure and Support Keyboard Navigation
Some people have motor disabilities, some have low vision, etc. The Tab key can help navigate the interactive parts of your pages. Your tab order should follow the visual flow of your content; whether that be left to right or top to bottom. Also, you should format your navigation menu, links, text fields, etc. so that people with motor function disabilities shouldn’t be tabbing forever to get through your page, it could be too physically demanding for them.